Arabic the Noun of Kaana

The Noun of “كَانَ” (اسْم “كَانَ”)

وَالْخَامِسُ: كُلُّ تَرْكِيْبٍ مِثْلُ “كَانَ الْبُسْتَانُ مُثْمِراً” وَ”يَكُوْنُ الْبُسْتَانُ مُثْمِراً”، وَيُسَمَّى الاسْمُ الأَوَّلُ “اسْماً” لِـ”كَانَ”، وَمِثْلُ “كَانَ”: “صَارَ”، “أَصْبَحَ”، “أَضْحَى”، “ظَلَّ”، “أَمْسَى”، “بَاتَ”، “مَا زَالَ”، “مَا بَرِحَ”، “مَا انْفَكَّ”، “مَا فَتِئَ”، “مَا دَامَ”، “لَيْسَ”.
The fifth (place of الرَّفْع ) is every construction like: “كَاَنَ الْبُسْتَانُ مُثْمِراً” (The garden was bearing fruit) and the first الاسْم is called “اسْم” (Noun) of “كَانَ” . Similar to “كَانَ” (was) are:
¨     “صَارَ” (became)
¨     “أَصْبَحَ” (became / became in the morning)
¨     “أَضْحَى” (became / became during the forenoon)
¨     “ظَلَّ” (remained, continued)
¨     “أَمْسَى” (became / became in the late afternoon or evening)
¨     “بَاتَ” (became / became during the night)
¨     “مَا زَاَلَ” , “مَا بَرِحَ” , “مَا انْفَكَّ” and “مَا فَتِئَ” (continued)
¨     “مَا دَام” (was for as long as)
¨     “لَيْسَ” (is not)


The الْمُبْتَدَأ and الْخَبَر are both مَرْفُوْعَانِ as we know already. However, when “كَانَ” enters upon them the الْمُبْتَدَأ is called “اسْم” (Noun) of “كَانَ” and the الْخَبَر is called “خَبَر” (predicate) of “كَانَ” . Moreover it is necessary that the first be مَرْفُوْع and the second “مَنْصُوْب .

Thus, you say concerning the aforementioned examples (mentioned in the previous lesson):

  • “كَانَ الْبُسْتَانُ مُثْمِراً” (The garden was bearing fruit)
  • “كَانَ الشَّجَرُ مُوْرِقاً” (The trees were growing leaves)
  • “كَانَ الْمَطَرُ غَزِيْراً” (The rain was heavy or abundant)
  • “كَانَ الْجَوُّ مُعْتَدِلاً” (The weather was moderate)
  • and likewise you extend the rule to other similar cases.

Similar to “كَانَ” (in terms of function and its effect on the الْمُبْتَدَأ and الْخَبَر ) are “صَارَ” (became) and all the الأَفْعَال (verbs) mentioned after it, like:

  • “صَارَ الْبُسْتَانُ مُثْمِراً” (The garden became a bearer of fruit)
  • “أَصْبَحَ الشَّجَرُ مُوْرِقاً” (The trees became bearers of leaves in the morning)
  • “مَا زَالَ الْجَوُّ مُعْتَدِلاً” (The weather continued to be moderate),
  • and so on and so forth.