|الأَوَّلُ: كُلُّ تَرْكِيْبٍ مِثْل “حَفِظَ مُحَمَّدٌ الْكِتَابَ”وَ”يَطْلُبُ الْعَاقِلُ الْعِلْمَ”، وَيُسَمَّى الاسْمُ حِيْنَئِذٍ “فَاعِلاً” |
The first (place of الرَّفْع ) is every construction like: “حَفِظَ مُحَمَّدٌ الْكِتَابَ” (Muhammad memorised the book) and “يَطْلُبُ الْعَاقِلُ الْعِلْمَ” (The intelligent person seeks knowledge), and the الاسْم , then, is called “فَاعِل” (doer/subject of verbal sentence).
When you see someone called “مَحْمُوْد” , for example, cutting (يَقْطَعُ) a branch (غُصْن) from a tree, and you want to state or report that event, you say: “قَطَعَ مَحْمُوْدٌ الْغُصْنَ” (Mahmud cut the branch). Now, the word “قَطَعَ” which denotes the occurrence of the act of cutting is called a “فِعْل” as was explained before, and the word “مَحْمُوْد” which indicates the one who performed and carried out the act of cutting is called a “فَاعِل” (doer/subject of a verbal sentence), and it is necessary for it to be مَرْفُوْع , and the word “الْغُصْن” which indicates the thing onto which the action occurred is called a “مَفْعُوْل بِهِ” (direct object) and more will be said about that (i.e. the الْمَفْعُوْل بِهِ ) later.
Similar to the word “مَحْمُوْد” in this example are:
- the word “مُحَمَّد” (Muhammad) in “حَفِظَ مُحَمَّدٌ الْكِتَابَ” (Muhammad memorised the book),
- “الْعَاقِل” (intelligent person) in “يَطْلُبُ الْعَاقِلُ الْعِلْمَ” (The intelligent person seeks knowledge),
- “الله” (Allah) in “خَلَقَ اللهُ الإِنْسَانَ” (Allah created humanity),
- “الذِّئْب” (the wolf) in “يَأْكُلُ الذِّئْبُ الْغَنَمَ” (The wolf eats/is eating the flock),
- “الأَنْبِيَاء” (the Prophets) in “أَرْشَدَ الأَنْبِيَاءُ النَّاسَ” (The Prophets guided the people) and
- “النَّاس” (the people) in “يُبْغِضُ النَّاسُ الْخَائِنَ” (The people hate the traitor),
and likewise is the case of every word occurring after the الْفِعْل and denotes the one doing the action.