Arabic the Subject (of the Nominal Sentence) and Predicate

الْمُبْتَدَأ وَالْخَبَر

الثَالِثُ وَالرَّابِعُ: كُلُّ تَرْكِيْبٍ مِثْلُ “الْبُسْتَانُ مُثْمِرٌ”، وَيُسَمَّى الأَوَّلُ “مُبْتَدَأً” وَالثَّانِيْ “خَبَراً”.  
  The third and fourth (places of الرَّفْع ) are every construction, like: “الْبُسْتَانُ مُثْمِرٌ” (The garden is bearing fruit). The first الاسْم is called “مُبْتَدَأ” (Subject) and the second “خَبَر” (Predicate).  


The complete sentence is either (a) composed of a فِعْل and an اسْم and the latter is either the الْفَاعِل or the نَائِب الْفَاعِلِ (and these two places have already been explained), or (b) it is composed of two اسْمَانِ (i.e. an اسْم followed by another), the first is called “مُبْتَدَأ” (subject) and the second “خَبَر” (predicate), and it is necessary that both these be مَرْفُوْع . This can be illustrated as follows:

  • الْبُسْتَانُ مُثْمِرٌ (The garden is bearing fruit)
  • الشَّجَرُ مُوْرِقٌ (The trees are growing leaves),
  • الْمَطَرُ غَزِيْرٌ (The rain is heavy or abundant),
  • الْجَوُّ مُعْتَدِلٌ (The weather is moderate),
  • as well as whatever resembles these examples as regards all sentences composed of two اسْمَانِ (i.e. an اسْم followed by another), such that the one is commenced with and at the same time also predicated of (i.e. given information of) by the other.