إِعْرَاب الْفِعْلِ الْمُعْتَلِّ
|وَإِذَا كَانَ آخِرُ الْمُضَارِعِ أَلِفاً أَوْ وَاواً أَوْ يَاءً سُمِّيَ “مُعْتَلَّ الآخِرِ”، وَجُزِمَ بِحَذْفِ آخِرِهِ نِيَابَةً عَنِ السُّكُوْنِ، نحو: “لَمْ يَخْشَ”، وَ”لَمْ يَدْعُ”، وَ”لَمْ يَرْمِ”. أَمَّا النَّصْبُ فَيْظَهَرُ عَلَى الْوَاوِ وَالْيَاءِ وَيُقَدَّرُ عَلَى الأَلِفِ، وَأَمَّا الرَّفْعُ فَيُقَدَّرُ عَلَى الْجَمِيْعِ. When the ending (i.e. final letter) of the الْمُضَارِع is an أَلِف , وَاو or يَاء , it is called “مُعْتَلّ الآخِرِ” (weak ending verb), and it is مَجْزُوْم with the dropping of it (i.e. the weak ending) in place of the السُّكُوْن , like: “لَمْ يَخْشَ” (did not fear), “لَمْ يَدْعُ” (did not call) and “لَمْ يَرْمِ” (did not throw/cast). As for النَّصْب it is apparent (i.e. ظَاهِر or uttered and pronounced) on the الْوَاو and الْيَاء and implied (i.e. مُقَدَّر or not uttered or pronounced but assumed in the mind of the Arabic user) on the الأَلِف . As for الرَّفْع it is implied (i.e. مُقَدَّر ) on all (three weak letters).|
When the ending (i.e. final letter) of the الْفِعْل الْمُضَارِع is:
- an أَلِف (even if it is written as a يَاء ), like: “يَخْشَى” (fear/will fear), “يَسْعَى” (strive/will strive) and “يَلْقَى” (meet/will meet), or
- a وَاو , like: “يَدْعُوْ” (call/will call), “يَسْمُوْ” (rise/will rise) and “يَلْهُوْ” (play/will play) or
- a يَاء , like: “يَرْمِيْ” (throw/will throw), “يَعْصِيْ” (disobey/will disobey) and “يَمْشِيْ” (walk/will walk),
then, it is called “مُعْتَلّ الآخِرِ” (the weak ending verb).
The الْجَزْم of the الْفِعْل الْمُعْتَلّ الآخِرِ is not by means of the السُّكُوْن (which is the standard declension) but rather by means of dropping of its (weak) ending in place of the السُّكُوْن (i.e. نِيَابَةً عَنِ السُّكُوْنِ ). The dropping of the ending (i.e. حَذْف الآخِرِ ) is among the الْعَلاَمَات الْفَرْعِيَّة (secondary signs), like: “لَمْ يَخْشَ” (did not fear), “لَمْ يَسْعَ” (did not strive), “لَمْ يَلْقَ” (did not meet), “لَمْ يَدْعُ” (did not call), “لَمْ يَسْمُ” (did not rise), “لَمْ يَلْهُ” (did not play), “لَمْ يَرْمِ” (did not throw/cast), “لَمْ يَعْصِ” (did not disobey) and “لَمْ يَمْشِ” (did not walk).
[Note that in these examples the الْفَتْحَة at the end of “يَخْشَ” , “يَسْعَ” and “يَلْقَ” indicates that an أَلِف has been dropped, the الضَّمَّة at the end of “يَدْعُ” , “يَسْمُ” and “يَلْهُ” indicates that a وَاو has been dropped and the الْكَسْرَة at the end of “يَرْمِ” , “يَعْصِ” and “يَمْشِ” indicates that a يَاء has been dropped].
As for it being مَنْصُوْب and مَرْفُوْع , it is (so) by means of the الْعَلاَمَتَيْنِ الأَصْلِيَّتَيْنِ (the two primary signs): the الضَّمَّة and the الْفَتْحَة except that:
- the الْفَتْحَة is مُقَدَّرَة (implicit i.e. implied and assumed to exist in the mind of the Arabic user only) in the case of the الأَلِف due to تَعَذُّر تَحْرِيْكِهَا (i.e. the impossibility of vowelling it, that is, vowelling the الأَلِف ) but is ظَاهِرَة (explicit i.e. uttered and pronounced) in the case of the الْوَاو and the الْيَاء (due to the ease with which the الْفَتْحَة is pronounced on these two letters), and
- the الضَّمَّة is مُقَدَّرَة (implicit) in the case of the الأَلِف due to التَّعَذُّرِ (i.e. impossibility of vowelling the الأَلِف ) as well as in the case of the الْوَاو and the الْيَاء due to الثِّقَل (i.e. due to heaviness and difficulty of pronouncing it on these two letters).
[The declension by means of a ضَمَّة مُقَدَّرَة (implicit and implied ضَمَّة ) or فَتْحَة مُقَدَّرَة (implicit and implied فَتْحَة ) belongs to a type of الإِعْرَاب (declension) known as الإِعْرَاب الْمُقَدَّر (implied or hypothetical declension) and is applicable to the الاسْم as when dealing with particular types of الاسْم ]