Arabic the followers / modifiers


وَإِلَى هُنَا تَمَّ لَنَا مَعْرِفَةُ جَمِيْعِ مَوَاضِعِ الرَّفْعِ وَالنَّصْبِ وَالْجَزْمِ وَالْجَرِّ، غَيْرَ أَنَّهُ قَدْ يَسْرِي إِعْرَابُ الْكَلِمَةِ عَلَى مَا بَعْدَهَا بِحَيْثُ تُرْفَعُ عِنْدَ رَفْعِهَا، وَتُنْصَبُ عِنْدَ نَصْبِهَا وَهَكَذَا، وَيُسَمَّى الْمُتَأَخِّرُ “تَابِعاً”، وَالتَّوَابِعُ: أَرْبَعَةُ أَنْوَاعٍ:

Up to here we have completed our knowledge of all the places of الرَّفْع , النَّصْب , الْجَزْم and الْجَرّ except that the declension (الإِعْرَاب) of a word might proceed and continue on to what is after it (i.e. after that word) such that it (i.e. the subsequent word) is:
¨     مَرْفُوْع due to it (i.e. the previous word) being مَرْفُوْع ,
¨     مَنْصُوْب due to it being مَنْصُوْب , and so on.
The one that occurs later (in the construction) is called a “تَابِع” (follower).
The التَّوَابِع (plural of التَّابِع i.e. followers) are of four types:


When the الْكَلِمَة is مَرْفُوْعَة or مَنْصُوْبَة or مَجْرُوْرَة due to it occurring in one of the places that have been explained previously, then its declension is said to be primary (أَصْلِيّ) . There is another kind of declension which is said to be secondary (تَبَعِيّ) and there is no other reason accounting for it (i.e. for the existence of this latter kind of declension) other than the fact that the الْكَلِمَة (which has secondary declension) occurs after that which has primary declension (إِعْرَاب أَصْلِيّ) . Hence, the word later (in the construction) is مَرْفُوْع , مَنْصُوْب , مَجْزُوْم or مَجْرُوْر due to it following what is before it, and it is for that reason that it is called a “تَابِع” (follower). We already know the primary declension (الإِعْرَاب الأَصْلِيّ) of words. As for the secondary declension (الإِعْرَاب التَّبَعِيّ) , it is of four types