Arabic The Method of Syntactic Analysis / Parsing

كَيْفِيّة الإِعْرَابِ

We know from what has gone before that:

  • from the الْحُرُوْف الْهِجَائِيَّة all the الْكَلِمَات are composed,
  • the الْكَلِمَات comprise the  الْفِعْل, the الاسْم and the الْحَرْف ,
  • of the الْكَلِمَات there is that which is مَبْنِيّ and that which is مُعْرَب and
  • the الْمُعْرَب can be مَرْفُوْع , مَنْصُوْب , مَجْزُوْم or مَجْرُوْر .

We also know the respective places (in which the الْمُعْرَب is مَرْفُوْع , مَنْصُوْب , مَجْزُوْم              or مَجْرُوْر ) and hence it should not be difficult for us after that, when we see a particular expression, to be able to:

  • read it correctly,
  • distinguish between the words contained in it by identifying the الاسْم , the الْفِعْل and the الْحَرْف among them,
  • isolate the الْمَبْنِيّ and الْمُعْرَب
  • distinguish the الْمَرْفُوْع , الْمَنْصُوْب , الْمَجْزُوْم and الْمَجْرُوْر (among them) and
  • state the reason for that being the case.

This is called “الإِعْرَاب” (syntactic analysis / parsing).

Thus, we say concerning for example:

“لاَ يُؤَخِّرْ أَحَدٌ عَمَلَ الْيَوْمِ لِغَدٍ” (Let no one postpone today’s work until tomorrow):

“لاَ”:              حَرْفُ نَهْيٍ، مَبْنِيٌّ عَلَى السُّكُوْنِ لاَ مَحَلَّ مِنَ الإِعْرَابِ.

“يُؤَخِّرْ”:          فِعْلٌ مُضَارِعٌ مَجْزُوْمٌ لِوُقُوْعِهِ بَعْدَ “لاَ” النَّاهِيَةِ.

“أَحَدٌ”:           فَاعِلٌ مَرْفُوْعٌ

“عَمَلَ”:          مَفْعُوْلٌ بِهِ مَنْصُوْبٌ

“الْيَوْمِ”:          مُضَافٌ إِلَيْهِ مَجْرُوْرٌ

“لِغَدٍ”:            اللاَّمُ حَرْفُ جَرٍّ مَبْنِيٌّ عَلَى الْكَسْرِ، لاَ مَحَلَّ لَهُ مِنَ الإِعْرَابِ، وَ”غَدٍ” مَجْرُوْرٌ بِاللاَّمِ.

and likewise, you extend the rule to other similar cases.

والحمد لله رب العالمين