وَالثَّانِيْ: إِذَا نُسِبَ إِلَيْهِ اسْمٌ سَابِقٌ، نَحْوُ: “خَادِم الأَمِيْرِ“، وَ”سُوْر الْمَدِيْنَةِ” وَيُسَمَّى “مُضَافاً إِلَيْهِ”، وَمَا قَبْلَهُ “مُضَافاً”
The second (place of الْجَرّ ) is when an اسْم – coming before it – is connected to it, like: “خَادِم الأَمِيْرِ“ (the servant of the emir) and “سُوْر الْمَدِيْنَةِ“ (the wall of the city), and is called “مُضَاف إِلَيْهِ” (noun to which the previous noun is annexed) and that which is before it (is called) “مُضَاف” (noun that is annexed to the الْمُضَاف إِلَيْهِ )
When we hear a person saying: “حَضَرَ الْيَوْمَ خَادِمٌ” (A servant was present / came today), we do not know which servant he means: whether it is the servant of the emir or the servant of the judge or the servant of any other person, because he did not relate or link him to anyone. So when he says: “حََضَرَ الْيَوْمَ خَادِمُ الأَمِيْرِ“ (The servant of the emir was present / came today), we know which servant he means because of the servant being related and linked to the emir in no uncertain terms. The word “خَادِم” is called “مُضَاف” and the word “الأَمِيْرِ” is called “مُضَاف إِلَيْهِ” .
Similar to “خَادِم الأَمِيْرِ” are:
- “سُوْر الْمَدِيْنَةِ“ (the wall of the city),
- “بَاب الْبَيْتِ“ (the door of the house),
- “عِنَان الْفَرَسِ“ (the reins of the horse),
- as well as whatever resembles these examples as regards every اسْمَانِ (two nouns), the first of which is related and linked to the second.
Furthermore, the الْمُضَاف إِلَيْهِ does not occur except in a state of being مَجْرُوْر .