وَالثَّانِيْ: نَحْوُ “حِفْظاً” مِنْ “حَفِظَ مُحَمَّدٌ الْكِتَابَ حِفْظاً“، وَيُسَمَّى “مَفْعُوْلاً مُطْلَقاً
The second (category of الْمَنْصُوْب ) is like “حِفْظاً” in “حَفِظَ مُحَمَّدٌ الْكِتَابَ حِفْظاً“ (Muhammad really memorised the book) and is called “مَفْعُوْل مُطْلَق” (Absolute / Unqualified object).
When you say: “قَتَلَ الْحَارِسُ اللِّصَّ” (The guard killed the thief), the listener might take the act of killing (as mentioned by the speaker) to be an exaggeration and actually understand that what is meant (by the action “قَتَلَ” ) is “beating him up” and not actually “killing him”. To prevent this erroneous understanding you add (for the purpose of adding emphasis and definiteness) the word “قَتْلاً” to the previous sentence, such that you say: “قَتَلَ الْحَارِسُ اللِّصَّ قَتْلاً” (The guard really killed the thief). The word “قَتْلاً” is called “مَفْعُوْل مُطْلَق” and it is necessary that it be مَنْصُوْب . Similar to the word “قَتْلاً” (in function and semantic effect) are:
- “حِفْظاً” in “حَفِظَ مُحَمَّدٌ الْكِتَابَ حِفْظاً“ (Muhammad really memorised the book),
- “إِرْشَاداً” in “أَرْشَدَ الأَنْبِيَاءُ النَّاسَ إِرْشَاداً“ (The Prophets really guided the people),
- “سَيْراً” in “يَسِيْرُ الْعَاقِلُ سَيْراً حَمِيْداً” (The intelligent person proceeds in a praiseworthy fashion),
- as well as whatever resembles these examples as regards every اسْم denoting the very action that the الْفَاعِل is performing (in the real and not metaphorical sense).