Object of Accompaniment الْمَفْعُوْل مَعَهُ
وَالْخَامِسُ: نَحْوُ “الْمِصْبَاحَ” مِنْ “حَفِظَ مُحَمَّدٌ وَالْمِصْبَاحَ“، وَيُسَمَّى “مَفْعُوْلاً مَعَهُ”
The fifth (category of الْمَنْصُوْب ) is like “الْمِصْبَاحَ” in “حَفِظَ مُحَمَّدٌ وَالْمِصْبَاحَ“ (Muhammad memorized with the lamp i.e. using the lamp) and is called “مَفْعُوْل مَعَهُ” (Object of Accompaniment).
When someone says to you: “سِرْتُ وَالْجَبَلَ حَتَّى وَصَلْتُ آخِرَ الصَّعِيْدِ” [I travelled with the mountain (i.e. alongside the mountain) until I reached the end of the highland], then the meaning thereof is that he took the side of the mountain (as it were) as a way or path alongside which he travelled until he reached his intended destination.
Likewise, when you ask someone for a place that you wish to reach and he says to you: “اِذْهَبْ وَالشَّارِعَ الْجَدِيْدَ” (Go with the new road), then the meaning thereof is: “Make the act of you going (to that place) next to or alongside the new road; Do not deviate from it, neither to the right nor to the left, and you will reach the intended place”.
Each of the words “الْجَبَلَ” in the first example and “الشَّارِعَ” in the second example is called “مَفْعُوْل مَعَهُ” (object of accompaniment) and is مَنْصُوْب and the الْوَاو which is before it is called “وَاو الْمَعِيَّةِ” (the Waw of Accompaniment).
Similar to these two examples are:
- “الْمِصْبَاحَ” in “حَفِظَ مُحَمَّدٌ وَالْمِصْبَاحَ“ (Muhammad memorised with the lamp),
- “الْجُنْدَ” in “سَارَ الأَمِيْرُ وَالْجُنْدَ“ (The commander travelled with the soldiers),
- “النِّيْلَ” in “تَوَجَّهَ الْقَوْمُ وَالنِّيْلَ“ (The people went with the Nile) and
Such is the case with every اسْم denoting that with or alongside which the action is performed.
From what has gone before it becomes clear that the الْمَفَاعِيْل (plural of الْمَفْعُوْل ) are five in number, and they are:
- the ِالْمَفْعُوْل بِه (direct object),
- the الْمَفْعُوْل الْمُطْلَق (absolute or unqualified object),
- the الْمَفْعُوْل لِأَجْلِهِ (object of reason),
- the الْمَفْعُوْل فِيْهِ (adverb) and
- the الْمَفْعُوْل مَعَهُ (object of accompaniment).