الأَوَّلُ: نَحْوُ “الْكِتَابَ” مِنْ “حَفِظَ مُحَمَّدٌ الْكِتَابَ” وَيُسَمَّى “مَفْعُوْلاً بِهِ”
|The first (category of الْمَنْصُوْب ) is like “الْكِتَابَ” in “حَفِظَ مُحَمَّدٌ الْكِتَابَ“ (Muhammad memorised the book) and is called “مَفْعُوْل بِهِ” (direct object).|
Every action that occurs in the world has to have a فَاعِل (doer / agent) doing and executing it, and sometimes this action is transferred and made to occur on something-else.
The word denoting the one from whom the action occurs is called “فَاعِل” (doer / agent) and it is necessary that it be مَرْفُوْع as was mentioned previously.
The word denoting that onto which the action is transferred and made to occur is called “مَفْعُوْل بِهِ” (direct object), and it is necessary that it be “مَنْصُوْب” . Therefore, when you say: “قَطَعَ مَحْمُوْدٌ الْغُصْنَ“ (Mahmud cut the branch), “مَحْمُوْد” is a فَاعِل and “الْغُصْنَ” a مَفْعُوْل بِهِ because الْقَطْع (i.e. the action of cutting) occurs on it (i.e. “الْغُصْنَ” ).
Similar to “الْغُصْن” in this example are:
- “الْكِتَابَ” in “حَفِظَ مُحَمَّدٌ الْكِتَابَ“ (Muhammad memorized the book),
- “الْعِلْمَ” in “يَطْلُبُ الْعَاقِلُ الْعِلْمَ“ (The intelligent person seeks knowledge),
- “الإِنْسَانَ” in “خَلَقَ اللهُ الإِنْسَانَ“ (Allah created humankind),
- “الْغَنَمَ” in “يَأْكُلُ الذِّئْبُ الْغَنَمَ“ (The wolf is eating the sheep),
- “النَّاسَ” in “أَرْشَدَ الأَنْبِيَاءُ النَّاسَ“ (The prophets guided the people) and
- “الْخَائِنَ” in “يُبْغِضُ النَّاسُ الْخَائِنَ“ (The people hate the traitor).
Such is the case with every اسْم denoting that onto which the action of the الْفَاعِل occurs and on account of which the form of the لْفِعْل remains unchanged. As for when the form of the الْفِعْل is changed in the process, then the الاسْم (denoting that onto which the action of the الْفَاعِل occurs) is a نَائِب فَاعِلٍ instead and it is necessary for it to be مَرْفُوْع as was discussed previously.