Arabic the Adverb

الْمَفْعُوْل فِيْهِ

وَالرَّابِعُ: نَحْوُ “صَبَاحاً” وَ”أَمَامَ” مِنْ “حَفِظَ مُحَمَّدٌ الْكِتَابَ صَبَاحاً أَمَامَ الْمُعَلِّمِ”، وَيُسَمَّى “مَفْعُوْلاً فِيْهِ” أَوْ “ظَرْفاً”.

The fourth (category of الْمَنْصُوْب ) is like “صَبَاحاً” and “أَمَامَ” in             “حَفِظَ مُحَمَّدٌ الْكِتَابَ صَبَاحاً أَمَامَ الْمُعَلِّمِ” (Muhammad memorised the book in the morning in front of the teacher) and is called “مَفْعُوْل فِيْهِ” or “ظَرْف” (Adverb)


Every فِعْل has to occur in a time (زَمَان) and a place (مَكَان) . Thus, when you say:             “حَفِظَ مُحَمَّدٌ الْكِتَابَ صَبَاحاً (Muhammad memorised the book in the morning), you are clarifying the time of memorising which is in the morning (الصَّبَاح) and when you say:        “حَفِظَ مُحَمَّدٌ الْكِتَابَ أَمَامَ الْمُعَلِّمِ” (Muhammad memorised the book in front of the teacher), you are clarifying the place of memorising which is the area in front of the teacher.

The word “صَبَاحاً” is called “ظَرْف زَمَانٍ” (adverb of time) and the word “أَمَامَ” is called      “ظَرْف مَكَانٍ” (adverb of place), and both of them are called “مَفْعُوْل فِيْهِ” and it is necessary that they be مَنْصُوْب .

Similar to “صَبَاحاً” is:

  • “مَسَاءً” (late afternoon / evening),
  • “يَوْماً” (during the day, one day),
  • “لَيْلَةً” (at night),
  • “بُكْرَةً” (early morning),
  • “غَداً” (tomorrow),
  • “ضَحْوَةً” (forenoon, late morning),
  • “سَحَراً” (early morning / pre-dawn / before day-break i.e. the last part of the night before dawn),
  • “أَبَداً” (for ever),
  • “حِيْناً” (for a time / while / indefinite period),
  • “وَقْتاً” (for a time),
  • “لَحْظَةً” (a moment),
  • “سَاعَةً” (an hour),
  • “مُدَّةً” (a period of time),
  • “سَنَةً” (a year) and
  • “شَهْراً” (a month),

and like “أَمَامَ” are:

  • “قُدَّامَ” (in front),
    • “خَلْفَ” (behind),
    • “وَرَاءَ” (behind),
    • “فَوْقَ” (above / on top of),
    • “تَحْتَ” (under / below / beneath),
    • “يَمِيْناً” (right / rightwards),
    • “شِمَالاً” (left / leftwards),
    • “عِنْدَ” (at, by / with),
    • “مَعَ” (with / together with / in the company of),
    • “إِزَاءَ” (opposite to),
    • “حِذَاءَ” (near / close to),
    • “تِلْقَاءَ” (opposite to),
    • “بَرِيْداً” (forty-eight thousand steps),
    • “فَرْسَخاً” (a parasang or twelve thousand steps) and
    • “مِيْلاً” (a mile or four thousand steps)