وَالسَّابِعُ: نَحْوُ “جَالِساً” أَوْ “صَحِيْحاً” مِنْ “حَفِظَ مُحَمَّدٌ الْكِتَابَ جَالِساً” أَوْ “حَفِظَهُ صَحِيْحاً“، وَيُسَمَّى “حَالاً”
The seventh (category of الْمَنْصُوْب ) is like “جَالِساً” or “صَحِيْحاً” in “حَفِظَ مُحَمَّدٌ الْكِتَابَ جَالِساً“ (Muhammad memorized the book sitting) or “حَفِظَهُ صَحِيْحاً“ (He memorized it while it is correct) and is called “حَالا” (State or Condition).
When you say: “شَرِبَ أَمِيْنٌ الْمَاءَ” (Amin drank the water), the sentence is correct except that it is not possible to know from the sentence the state or condition in which the الْفَاعِل was at the time of the action or likewise the state or condition in which the الْمَفْعُوْل بِهِ was at the time of the action.
However, when you say: “شَرِبَ أَمِيْنٌ الْمَاءَ قَائِماً“ (Amin drank the water standing), you have in fact clarified the state or condition in which Amin was at the time of drinking, and when you say: “شَرِبَ أَمِيْنٌ الْمَاءَ رَائِقاً“ (Muhammad drank the water in pure form), you have in fact also clarified the state or condition of the water at the time of drinking. Thus, the word “قَائِماً” or “رَائِقاً” is called a “حَال” (state or condition) and it is necessary for it to be مَنْصُوْب .
Similar to these two examples are:
- “جَالِساً” or “صَحِيْحاً” in “حَفِظَ مُحَمَّدٌ الْكِتَابَ جَالِساً“ (Muhammad memorised the book sitting) or “حَفِظَهُ صَحِيْحاً“ (He memorised it while it is its correct form),
- “مُتَنَفِّساً” (breathing) or “مَكْشُوْفاً” (uncovered) in “لاَ يَشْرَبْ أَحَدُكُمْ الْمَاءَ مُتَنَفِّساً“ (Let not any of you drink the water whilst breathing or inhaling) or “لاَ يَشْرَبْهُ مَكْشُوْفاً“ (Let him not drink it uncovered).
Such is the case with every اسْم which clarifies the posture or position of the الْفَاعِل or الْمَفْعُوْل at the time the action occurs.