|وَتَنْقَسِمُ الْكَلِمَاتُ عِنْدَ التَّرَكُّبِ إِلَى قِسْمَيْنِ: قِسْمٍ لاَ يَتَغَيَّرُ آخِرُهُ أَبَداً، وَيُسَمَّى “مَبْنِيًّا” وَقِسْمٍ يَتَغَيَّرُ آخِرُهُ وَيُسَمَّى “مُعْرَباً”. The الْكَلِمَات are divided – when grouped together (in a sentence) – into two categories: a category whose ending never changes, and is called “مَبْنِيّ” (indeclinable), anda category whose ending changes, and is called “مُعْرَب” (declinable).|
It has been mentioned to you previously that الْجُمَل الْمُفِيْدَة (meaningful and informative sentences) are composed of individual words which do not fall outside the three classes (of word): the الْفِعْل, the الاسْم and the الْحَرْف .
However, these words – when they are grouped together in a جُمْلَة – are not all the same.
- of them there is that whose ending exists in one state (and one state only) no matter in what construction it appears, and is called “مَبْنِيّ” (indeclinable), like: the word “أَيْنَ” (Where) in your statement: “أَيْنَ الْكَتَابُ؟” (Where is the book?), “أَيْنَ ذَهَبَ عَلِيٌّ؟” (Where did Ali go?) and “مِنْ أَيْنَ جِئْتَ؟” (From where did you come?), for the النُّوْن in “أَيْنَ” adheres strictly to the الْفَتْحَة (throughout) in it is not allowed for it (i.e. the النُّوْن ) to ever part from the الْفَتْحَة no matter how the constructions might change, and
- of them there is that whose ending exists in different modes and states, and is called “مُعْرَب” (declinable), like: the word “السَّمَاء” (heaven, sky) in your statement: “السَّمَاءُ صَافِيَةٌ” (The sky is clear), “حَجَبَتِ السُّحُبُ السَّمَاءَ” (The clouds covered the sky) and “نَظَرْتُ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ” (I looked at the sky), for its ending in the first sentence is vowelled with the الضَّمَّة , in the second with the الْفَتْحَة and the third with the الْكَسْرَة .