Arabic particles all of them are indeclinable


Particles الْحُرُوْف all of them are مَبْنِيَّة

أَمَّا اَلْحُرُوفُ فكُلَّهَا مَبنِيةٌ وهي خمسةُ أَقْسَامٍ They comprise five classes:

(1) أُحَادِيَّة (composed of one letter), like: the الْهَمْزَة , the الْبَاء , the التَّاء , the السِّيْن , the الْفَاء , the لْكَاف , the اللاَّم and the الْوَاو , like:

(2) ثُنَائِيَّة (composed of two letters), like: “أَلْ” (the), “أَمْ” (or), “أَنْ” (to, that), “إِنْ” (if), “بَلْ” (rather, instead), “قَدْ” (definitely, maybe, about to), “لَوْ” (if, had it been that, was it that) and “هَلْ” (question article, interrogative), like:

  • أَسَافَرَ زَيْدٌ؟ (Did Zaid travel?)
  • كَتَبْتُ بِقَلَمِكَ (I wrote with your pen)
  • خَرَجَتِ الْجَارِيَةُ وَسَتَرْجِعُ (The maid went out and she will return)
  • دَخَلَ عِنْدَ السُّلْطَانِ الْعُلَمَاءُ فَالأُمَرَاءُ (The scholars entered into the presence of the sultan, then the emirs)
  • الْعِلْمُ كَالنُّوْرِ (Knowledge is like light)
  • الْعَاقِبَةُ لَكُمْ (The result will be yours)
  • تَسُوْدُوْنَ بِالْعِلْمِ وَالأَدَبِ (You will rule/reign through knowledge and good character)
  • أَقَرِيْبٌ السَّفَرُ أَمْ بَعِيْدٌ؟ (Is the travel near or far?)
  • يَسُرُّنِيْ أَنْ تَعُوْدَ (It pleases me that you will be returning)
  • إِنْ تَرْحَمْ تُرْحَمْ (If you show mercy, you will be shown mercy to)
  • لَمْ يَذْهَبْ يُوْسُفُ بَلْ إِبْرَاهِيْمُ [Yusuf did not go but Ibrahim (went) instead]
  • قَدْ شَاهَدْتُّ الْقِطَارَ (I definitely saw the train)
  • لَوْ أَنْصَفَ النَّاسُ لاسْتَرَاحَ الْقَاضِيْ (If people were just and fair, then the judge would have been relieved)
  • هَلْ جَاءَ الْمِيْعَادُ؟ (Did the appointed time come?)

(3) ثُلاَثِيَّة (composed of three letters), like: “إِذَا” (all of a sudden, suddenly), “أَلاَ” (Alas!), “إِلَى” (to), “إِنَّ” (indeed, verily), “سَوْفَ” (will, shall), “عَلَى” (on, on top of), “لَيْتَ” (I wish) and “نَعَمْ” (yes), like:

  • ظَنَنْتُهُ غَائِباً إِذَا هُوَ حَاضِرٌ (I thought he was absent and then all of a sudden he was present)
  • أَلاَ إِنَّ أَسْبَابَ الْغِنَى لَكَثِيْرٌ (Alas! Truly, the causes of wealth are many)
  • سَوْفَ تَرَى (You will see)
  • لَيْتَ لِيْ قِنْطَاراً مِنَ الذَّهَبِ [I wish I had a kantar of gold]
  • نَعَمْ (Yes) in response to someone saying: “أَتُنْفِقُهُ فِي الْخَيْرِ؟” (Will you spend it in the way of Good?)

(4) رُبَاعِيَّة (composed of four letters), like: “إِذْ مَا” (if), “إِلاَّ” (except, excluding), “أَمَّا” (as for), “إِمَّا” (either/or), “حَتَّى” (until, up to including, even), “كَأَنَّ” (as if) and “لَعَلَّ” (I hope, hopefully, hoping, in order), like:

  • إِذْ مَا تَتَعَلَّمْ تَتَقَدَّمْ (If you learn you will progress, advance)
  • ﴿كُلُّ شَيْءٍ هَالِكٌ إِلاَّ وَجْهَهُ﴾ (Everything will perish except His Countenance)
  • قَصَّرَ الْحَارِسَانِ أَمَّا الأَوَّلُ فَتَرَكَ الْبَابَ وَأَمَّا الثَّانِيْ فَنَامَ (The two guards were negligent, as for the first he abandoned the door and as for the second, he slept)
  • يَحْضُرُ سَعِيْدٌ إِمَّا غَداً وَإِمَّا بَعْدَ غَدٍ (Sa’id will attend either tomorrow or after tomorrow)
  • قَدِمَ الْحُجَّاجُ حَتَّى الْمُشَاةُ (The pilgrims arrived including the pedestrians / those who walked)
  • كَأَنَّكَ كُنْتَ مَعَنَا (As if you were with us)
  • لَعَلَّ الْجَوَّ يَعْتَدِلُ (Hopefully, the weather will become moderate)

(5) خُمَاسِيَّة (composed of five letters), like: “إِنَّمَا” (only, nothing except), “أَنَّمَا” (that) and “لَكِنَّ” (but), like:

  • ﴿إِنَّمَا يُوْحَى إِلَيَّ أَنَّمَا إِلَهُكُمْ إِلَهٌ وَاحِدٌ﴾ (It was only revealed to me that your Lord is One God)
  • يُوْسُفُ غَنِيٌّ لَكِنَّهُ بَخِيْلٌ (Yusuf is wealthy but he is stingy)